Certified and licensed in category 6.0 (Right of Way & Natural Areas) issued by The State of Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection.
Buckthorn and other invasive plants are very difficult to control and will need to be monitored for many years. One of the main reasons Buckthorn is difficult to control is the seeds can lay dormant and viable in the soil for 5 to 7 years. It is also important to locate and control seedlings after initial control efforts are started.
If no follow up is performed Buckthorn and other invasive plants will come back!
Buckthorn kills native plants!
Native plants cannot naturally compete with Buckthorn. Both Glossy and Common Buckthorn varieties are found in many forest understories, wetlands, prairies, and river valleys. Bucktorn plants are part of the reason a new generation of Trees like Oaks and Maples have declined. Nature plants are a natural food sources for Wisconsin's songbirds. When Buckthorn is all that remains the birds eat the Buckthorn berries.
Buckthorn Kills songbirds!
When native plants disappear from an area where Buckthorn is dense, birds eat the berries of the Buckthorn. However, the berries causes a severte, laxative reaction in the birds.If Buckthorn berries are the only of food in an area, the birds will eat the beries & excrete repeatedly until they become dehydrated and weak.
Buckthorn can made pets sick!
If the berries and other parts of the plants are eaten the chemicals like modin (laxative)will cause diarrhea and dehydrate the pet.
Buckthorn harms agriculture and crops.
Soybean crop yields may be damaged by the Soybean aphids. The soybean aphid will feed on the buckthorn and migrate to agriculture crops. The aphids lay their eggs on buckthorn, the only know overwintering host in the United States. Soybean aphids have a very cold hardy egg stage that allows them to overwinter in Wisconsin.
Buckthorn increases the populations of the soybean aphids and the multicolored Asian lady beetle.
The soybean aphid is also linked to the increase in the population of the multicolored Asian lady beetle. The lady beetle's eggs hatch and produce larvae which feed on the soybean aphid. If the soybean aphid populations increase the multicolored Asian lady beetle increase. There are some issues related to the beetles. Some of the beetles bite hard enough to break the skim of humans which causes minor short term discomfort. The beetles also secrete a strong-smelling yellow liquid from the joints of their legs and this liquid can stain light colored surfaces. the beetles will overwinter in buildings and die which can cause allergic reactions in some humans.
The Buckthorn plants affect oat crops.
The buckthorn is host to the oat crown rust fungus and aids in the breeding for the fungus, giving possible rise to new strains of the fungus. Spores produced on the buckthorn leaves,know as aeciospores, are carried by wind to oat fields and infect the oat crops. Buckthorn plants should be eradicated whenever possible within a mile of oat fields.
Buckthorn plants limit recreational use in parks and woodlands.
Buckthorn plants are difficult and expensive to manage once populations are established. Park visitors feel more comfortable walking through park and woodland areas where they can actually see for some distance. Dense thickets of buckthorn reduce visibility along pathways and at intersections, decreasing park users' sense of safety.
Below ground effects of Buckthorn are complex.
The buckthorn's rich litter may favor dense populations of exotic earthworms, this increases organic soil matter and fertility. The exotic or invasive earthworms increase soil bulk density, which changes the nutrients cycling rates. The nutrient change reduces the carbon and nitrogen levels in the soil. The carbon and nitrogen level changes affect native plant species. Buckthorn also deploy chemicals depressing native plant germination, growth, survival,and flowering.
Buckthorn plants release the chemical compound emodin.
The chemical is produced in the leaves, berries, bark and roots. This chemical compound can leach into amphibian breeding areas and effect egg or embryo development, which prevents hatching. Some frogs and salamanders experience low hatching rates in areas with heavy buckthorn infestation.